出口到俄罗斯是一个相当复杂的过程,但并非不可能. 如果俄罗斯是贵best365体育网站的潜在出口目的地, 你需要仔细考虑美国面临的挑战.S. 限制贸易的出口限制和制裁.

U.S. 对俄罗斯的出口总额为4美元.2020年为90亿,减少了15亿.由于出口限制和制裁的增加,可能从2019年起增加6%. The top export commodity sectors in 2020 were machinery and mechanical appliances (30.2%); chemicals, plastics, and leather products (22.4%); and transportation equipment (20.3%).

作为世界第11大经济体, 俄罗斯拥有1.44亿人口,是世界上国土面积最大的国家. 贸易机会确实存在, 尽管挑战, so consider carefully whether Russia is a viable market for your products and services.

增加对俄罗斯的出口限制和制裁

U.S. export control restrictions and sanctions for Russia have become stricter in recent years in response to activities such as Russia’s military aggression in Ukraine (particularly Crimea), 使用化学武器, 和网络安全威胁. The U.S. has responded by placing more export restrictions on Russia’s energy and defense sectors through the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) under the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS). The U.S. also has added financial sanctions which are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). 出口限制针对俄罗斯的个人、行业和组织. Sectoral sanctions have been applied to industries important to the Russian government such as defense, oil and gas, 和金融服务.

Overall, 对俄罗斯的出口限制是25年来最严格的, 更多的限制措施可能会出台. In addition, an arms embargo to Russia was added earlier this year under Section 126.《best365体育网站》第1条. 一些例外情况仍然存在, 主要用于美国与美国之间的空间项目合作.S. 和俄罗斯政府.

尽管有这些挑战, opportunities still exist to export many items to Russia with an appropriate license, 或者在某些例外情况下不需要许可证. 如果你们考虑扩大对俄罗斯的出口市场, you should be mindful of current regulations and sanctions and have very stringent export compliance controls in place.

耳朵的限制

《best365体育网站》(CCL)上的许多项目都需要许可证才能出口到俄罗斯, 但也有一些没有, 所以做研究是值得的. Sometimes, it’s simple – defense-related items controlled in the 600 series of Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) and space-related items controlled in 9X515 ECCNs all require a license. 两用物品, 组成了大部分的ecn, 许可证的需要取决于具体的分类. 就补编第1号所列的某些项目而言. 从第2部分到第746部分在俄罗斯能源工业中特别有用, a license is required if the item will be used directly or indirectly in exploration for, 或生产的, 俄罗斯深水(大于500英尺)的石油或天然气, 北极近海地区, 或者俄罗斯的页岩地层, or if the exporter is unable to determine whether the item will be used for such purposes.

几乎所有受EAR限制的项目都需要出口许可证, reexport, 或者从2015年起转移到克里米亚.

Unfortunately for exporters, it is now harder to get a license for export to Russia. BIS is following a “presumption of denial” with regard to Russia for items controlled for national security reasons and in certain other cases. Companies must provide a compelling argument as to why they should get a license to export their items to Russia, 面对如此消极的许可政策,更是如此.

The U.S. has eliminated some exceptions that previously allowed certain items to be exported to Russia without a license. For example, License Exception CIV previously authorized certain items to Country Group D:1 when intended for both a civil end use and a civil end user. 然而,2020年,包括俄罗斯在内的所有国家都取消了这一例外. BIS also recently suspended three license exceptions for Russia specifically—RPL (for replacement parts and serviced items), 技术和软件, 不受限制的), and APR (additional permissive re-export) —although these exceptions are still available for other destinations. RPL和TSU被广泛使用. 出口商应该意识到,尽管国际清算银行发出了公开通知, these license exception suspensions have not been written into the corresponding sections of the EAR.

新的BIS军事情报最终使用/最终用户规则

In January 2021, BIS published an interim final rule that was made effective on March 16, 2021. 在第744节.EAR的22个成员, 临时最终规则对出口实行许可证要求, reexports, and transfers of items under the Military-Intelligence End Use/End User (MIEU) rule. This rule mirrors the 军事最终用途/End User (MEU) rule and it requires a license if there is knowledge of an intended military-intelligence end use or end user for items exported to Russia and seven other countries.

军事情报的最终用途被定义为发展, production, operation, 安装(含现场安装), 维护(检查), repair, overhaul, 或翻新的, 或并入, 美国政府所描述的项目.S. 军需物品清单(USML),根据第22 CFR,第121部分,ITAR. Also regulated are items classified under ECCNs ending in “A018” or in the 600 series, which are intended to support the actions or functions of a military-intelligence end-user as defined in this section. 根据临时最终规则, the exporter must apply for a license if they have knowledge of a prohibited military-intelligence end use or end user, 哪一个并不总是容易确定的.

国际贸易组织对俄罗斯实施武器禁运

美国于2021年初对俄罗斯实施了武器禁运, 因此,任何受国际贸易条例管制的物品都需要获得出口到俄罗斯的许可证. Existing licenses remain valid unless your company is notified by the Directorate of 国防贸易管制 (DDTC). Amendments and licenses in furtherance of (IFO) agreements also are subject to the new licensing policy. 少数例外仍然存在, 主要用于两国政府间的空间合作项目. 这些项目的申请将逐案审查.

这一变化给美国政府带来了一些额外的麻烦.S. companies. It is now more difficult to get a license if you have a Russian engineer on staff and more challenging to obtain approval for that individual to have access to ITAR-controlled technology, 适用于两个U型.S. best365体育网站和班.S. companies. ITAR also requires mandatory reporting of suspected violations to the State Department if they relate to a country under arms embargo. 如果有人知道行动, 无意的或故意的, 在俄罗斯best365体育手机网站上所做的事情, 他们现在被要求报告这些行动.

哪里可以找到更多的信息

尽管有这些挑战, 还有很多向俄罗斯出口商品的机会, 但你们必须实行严格的出口管制. For more information on the export regulations and sanctions, check out the following websites:

U.S. 对俄罗斯的出口限制和制裁是有针对性的、多层次的. 因为这个原因, exporting must be done in a careful way that requires that Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) or EAR99 classifications are correct. Exporters must pay special attention to end-use and end users as they can affect license requirements. The process of applying for a license requires close scrutiny of all the parties in the transaction to understand if they are on any sanctions lists, 或者它们属于制裁名单上的另一个实体.

The entire process of exporting to Russia also now requires a greater level of administrative attention. Keeping up-to-date on ever-changing rules and sanctions can seem like a complex and overwhelming process. ECTI covers exporting to Russia in all of our 现场best365体育手机网站 and many of our on-demand e-seminars. Non-U.S. 与会者可以在我们在美国境外举办的现场best365体育手机网站上访问这些材料.S. 通过我们的非美国.S. e-seminars. 看看我们最新的工具 & 这里的best365体育手机网站.

联系best365体育网站

ECTI can help you easily stay current with the ever-changing landscape of export regulations. Visit clkrep.thesassylime.com 了解我们的best365体育网站,我们的教师,我们的员工和我们尊敬的 出口合规专业人员(ECoP®)best365体育手机网站项目. 寻找即将到来 e-seminars现场best365体育手机网站 and 生活在线best365体育手机网站 and 浏览我们80多个按需在线best365体育手机网站的目录访问我们的ECTI学院. 您也可以致电best365体育网站获取更多信息.

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